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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

“My manifesto with Summly was to get our technology into as many users’ hands as possible,” Mr D’Aloisio said, pointing to Yahoo’s hundreds of millions of users. “With Yahoo’s reputation as a content portal, we have an opportunity to fundamentally change the way content is consumed.”

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格温o史蒂芬尼的广告在好几个应用上同时推出,其中就有总部位于硅谷的短信应用Tango。Tango主要通过用户收件箱里的广告赚钱,但它已采用了Swyft的平台,该公司广告和平台副总裁理查德o拉百特表示,这类广告非常契合人们使用Tango的方式。一年前,Tango决定不再卖贴纸了,因为向用户要钱总会带来很多摩擦。拉百特称:“在人们沟通过程中放上一道‘留下买路钱’的大门绝不是我们希望带给用户的体验。”所以,就由Swyft来提供这种广告吧。
The latest survey also showed the country had a narrower gap between genders in 2015. As to the structure of genders, the male-to-female ratio last year was 105.02, lower than the 2010 ratio of 105.2.
底特律居民都不会忘记1999年的暴风雪,当时多架飞机在底特律大都会国际机场的停机坪上滞留了数小时。同样,全美航空公司(US Airways)在2004年至2005年也遭遇了假日事故,当时超过72,000件行李丢失或损坏。

Helsinki-based developer Remedy Entertainment has blurred the line between Hollywood and games with previous incarnations Max Payne and Alan Wake. Now the studio is combining next-generation visuals with the tension and drama of scripted television. Set in the university town of Riverport, Quantum Break puts players in control of Jack Joyce and Beth Wilder, a pair of ordinary people who are given the extraordinary power to manipulate time after an accident that creates a time rift. Time will randomly break down during the game, which causes disasters in the environment that pause, stutter, rewind and freeze. Fans of Max Payne’s bullet time will see new strategies emerge with gunfights involving time-amplified combat as the player fights against the Monarch Corporation. In addition to the virtual storyline, the game features custom live action storytelling that’s personalized based on the decisions one makes.
2. Livers grow by almost half during waking hours. New research suggests that livers have the capacity to grow by almost 50 percent during the day, before shrinking back to their original size at night. They are the only organ we know of that oscillate this way.
以丹麦为例,如今,88%的丹麦人口都是白人——这样的多数地位很难动摇。但在1980年,也就是上一代人的时候,丹麦有97%的人口是白人。反移民的丹麦人民党(Danish People’s Party)现在是丹麦议会中的第二大党。在德国,从2011年到2015年间,非本土出生人口激增了大约75%,反移民的民粹政党德国另类选择党(Alternative for Germany)如今获得了破纪录的支持率。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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BrandZ表示,这些品牌靠近国内市场,这帮助它们从全球品牌手中夺取市场份额,它们还在新地区赢得市场份额。
让温馨的祝愿、幸福的思念和友好的祝福,在新年来到你身边,伴你左右。
Length of program: 24 months

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

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Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
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  • 武汉推行公租房货币化补贴
  • Summly和雅虎拒绝对交易的条款置评。
  • 家居体验馆引领家装新潮流
  • 四川邻水建材产业实现产值38亿元
  • 米兰达·兰伯特,《浴室水槽》(Bathroom Sink),RCA Nashville
    28 September

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 房价收入比下降 收入增幅继续与房价增幅赛跑, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

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Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

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Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

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    雇主因种族、肤色、性别、国籍、宗教、年龄或残疾而歧视员工属于违法行为。但美国多数州至今依然不保护LGBT群体的工作权益。苹果公司CEO蒂姆库克希望消除这种差异。11月份,库克在《华尔街日报》(Wall Street Journal )评论版对页发表了题为《平等就业对企业有益》(Workplace Equality Is Good for Business)的文章,敦促联邦立法,以免就业者因性取向而受到歧视。
  • 根据美国国会预算办公室(Congressional Budget Office)的数据,税收增加与支出削减将2013年的经济增速拉低了约1.5个百分点。许多预测人士认为,2014年财政因素对经济增速的拖累幅度将是2013年的三分之一或更低。牛津经济研究院(Oxford Economics)的美国经济学家达科(Gregory Daco)称,今年政治方面的确定性更高。
    要不是朝鲜再次进行核试验,朝鲜半岛眼下的大新闻可能就是特朗普选在这个节骨眼上宣布计划退出韩美贸易协定了。
    “Where ETFs have grown — in the US and Europe — there is a big ecosystem of financial advisers,” he says. “You need a more advisory model. But until you see people paying for advice rather than paying for commissions, it is hard to see when it will take off.”
    This so-called “playground for millionaires” is now open to everyone. The wallet-friendly hotels, guesthouses and self-catering apartments make tours affordable. With more than 100 divine islands scattered on the Indian ocean, many activities await, such as sunbathing, fishing, diving, sailing, and going on boat tours. The Seychelles islands are blessed with a warm tropical climate all year round, so you can go there whenever you want.
    I don't know about you, but if I had a separate calendar for work, school and life, I'd be a complete mess. When everything in your life is on one calendar, in one planner, you can't double-book anything. You know, like an important test and a dinner with your boss.

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 二胎政策落实:木门企业该抓住哪些发展重点?
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 地产股收盘丨 三大股指全线下跌 空港股份连续四天涨停

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

That will require different skills — notably a clearer vision among leaders of their organisation’s shared purpose. The dilemma of how to lead “teams” of robots and humans will become even more pressing this year.
TAXES: Approximately $18,036 a year
11月中国外汇储备下降872.23亿美元,接近8月下降940亿美元的纪录——该月中国央行出乎全球市场意料地允许人民币在三天里贬值4.6%。
对于英国广播公司文化部门来说,戛纳期间堆满了工作,而派对是少之又少。但是,影展之外的电影节给小镇描上了醉人的红色。在2013年,我们试图联系白雪香槟酒庄(Piper Heidsieck)计算电影节期间香槟的消费数量,但作为提供“官方饮品”的白雪香槟酒庄拒绝回应。不过看看克鲁瓦塞特(Croisette)大道上那些微醺的脸庞以及踉跄的步态,我们可以合理的推测香槟的消费数量十分庞大。电影节的第一周,在为马提欧?加洛尼影片《故事的故事》(Tale of Tales)举办的派对上香槟成河,狂欢者嗨至凌晨。次日早晨,英国广播公司的瑞贝卡?劳伦斯与某位明星进行访谈,询问其在采访前休息了多久。这位明星只是眯起了惺忪的眼睛,抬起了2根手指。
11月17日
奖项:尽管大众的高尔夫GTI先拔头筹,但偏向自家人的2015年北美汽车大奖的评审员们还是对福特的野马和F-150皮卡不吝溢美之辞。
前“世界小姐”朴雅卡·乔普拉位列2015世界美女榜第九。她是一名印度演员兼歌手,是宝莱坞片酬最高的女演员之一,也是印度最受欢迎、知名度最高的名人之一。她获得过无数荣誉,包括印度国家电影奖的最佳女演员奖项,以及印度电影观众奖的四项大奖。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • This movie tells the story of Wade Wilson, played by Ryan Reynolds, who is a mercenary with accelerated healing powers and a dark sense of humour. He's now on the lookout for the man who almost destroyed his life by subjecting him to rogue experiments. Deadpool belongs to the Marvel Universe and is their most unconventional anti-hero.
  • 房地产投资增幅回落 珠三角三地现负增长
  • 在即将卸任的中国领导层不愿做出任何有远见的决定时,中国必须沿着一条狭窄的道路审慎推进。
    Here, a quick peek at Power Women 2013:
  • 成都9月推出约3.1万套商品住房上市销售
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • James Bond Themes 3. "Skyfall" by Adele
    以下是我们精选的本届科隆游戏展最值得关注的新游戏。
  • v. 撤退,向后倾
    通过药物注射传播艾滋病病毒的情况已得到有效控制。2017年,经注射吸毒感染者的人数相比2012年下降44.5%。
  • Of the 27 provincial-level regions that outpaced the country's 6.7% GDP growth in 2016, only three regions - Chongqing, Guizhou and Tibet - achieved double-digit growth.
    白意味着属于一个外表、传统、宗教乃至食物都符合默认常规的群体。按照不言而喻的规则,白人意味着是一个长期被称作是“我们”,而不是“他们”中的一份子的人。
  • 欧盟完成与墨西哥现有贸易协议的(重新)谈判也是如此。在与墨西哥签订协议上,布鲁塞尔很可能比特朗普先冲过终点线。
    Arlie Russell Hochschild, the author of “Strangers in Their Own Land: Anger and Mourning on the American Right,” describes a feeling of lost opportunity as the “deep story” of the rural Louisiana communities she spent four years studying.
    To wish you special joy at the holidays and all year.祝你在节日和新的一年中享有无限的快乐。
  • repertoire
    STONINGTON, CONN.
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 日本关西计划投约1.59亿在湖南建汽车涂料用树脂工厂 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

热点城市宅地供应提速 同比上涨62%

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

首月多项经济数据现“开门红” 专家:一季度经济将运行在平稳区间

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

飞利浦剥离照明业务 专注医疗领域发展

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

家居企业齐跟风 向明星借“东风”

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • 中国科学技术协会书记处书记王春法对撤稿事件表示深切关注,事件发生几天前,他刚在北京与施普林格自然集团大中华地区总裁安诺杰会面沟通。
  • 深圳家具企业接连倒闭 发展模式急需变革

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

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  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
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    2.你突然变成Twitter上面思想领军人物。
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  • This post is in partnership with Time. The article below was originally published at Time.com

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 春运是中国在农历春节前后发生的一种大规模的高交通运输压力的现象,尤其是火车运输方面的压力。
  • 楼市持续下行态势明显 什么样的房子仍受宠?
  • 要想2014年像美国人所期望的那样由经济复苏贯穿整个年度,全球经济前景必须保持相对稳定的局面。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 天津滨海新区楼市升温 成熟商圈新房二手房抢手
  • Household substance abuse
  • 80后家装展看什么?展会模式变革势在必行
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

中钢协:钢铁局面复杂 产能过剩超想象

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 京首套房贷款利率八八折成主流 中介多有最惠通道
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 衡阳官方:撤销昨日网传暂停《规范市城区新建商品房销售价格行为》文件
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

"Everywhere I go business owners are seeing an increase in demand," said Gus Faucher, senior economist at PNC Financial Services. "Businesses will have to raise wages to attract or maintain workers."

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

坦率地讲,这种行为意味着你还只是一个小女孩,还算不上女人。
And this year, the Nobel Prize has defied the convention of celebrating big by presenting the biggest prizes to discoveries on the smallest scales.
我们必须牢牢抓住就业这一民生之本,让人们在劳动中创造财富,在奋斗中实现人生价值。
她还指出,其他国家在其货币贬值的同时呈现出旅客数量的大幅增加。
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贸易往来令中国该月贸易顺差达到408.2亿美元,比预期低大约72亿美元,也比11月份修正后442.3亿美元的水平(修正前该数字为446.1亿美元)低了36亿美元左右。以人民币计的这一顺差则为2754亿元人民币。
“He’s informal, candid and approachable,” says Ginni Rometty, chief executive of IBM, who praises him as “very authentic. It’s the hallmark of a modern CEO. What you see is what you get.”
According to the National Business Daily, the 16 listed banks plan to return 356.2 billion yuan to shareholders as cash dividends in 2015, a decrease of 8.3 billion yuan from the previous year.
[reind?]
当你在工作的时候,你的效率应该是很高的。不然的话,那就是在浪费你自己的时间和公司的财富。如果你很厌倦,一天当中大多数时间是在浏览网页,你可能是想要寻找其他的能够激励你的工作机会了。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

集体用地建房出租一举多得

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 如果美国汽车行业杂志《沃兹汽车》(Wardsauto)的专家最新编撰的最佳引擎榜单可作为一种指示,那么在当代轿车、卡车和跨界车的引擎盖下面正发生一场静悄悄的革命。涡轮增压、机械增压和柴油引擎——甚至还有一款电动发电机——主导了第20届年度十大最佳汽车引擎奖;根据《沃兹汽车》,这些奖项“表彰了杰出的动力系统成就、世界级技术以及那些帮助推动汽车销售的稀有发动机或者电力推进系统。”
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 该研究的公布正值美国政界反中国言论日益增加之际,此外,今年夏天3起针对从中国进口的钢铁产品的政治敏感反倾销案件即将作出裁决,可能导致美方对中国企业施加高达500%的惩罚性关税。
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  • Fudan University and Peking University, two prestigious comprehensive universities in China, were ranked fourth and sixth on the salary ranking, while the remaining of the top 20 were dominated by finance/economics and science/technology schools.
  • 李克强考察财政部税务总局
  • 今年年底标普500(S&P 500)指数会在2650点上方吗?

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 30城开展房地产市场乱象整治 重点打击炒房和“黑中介”
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • n. 意识,知觉,自觉,觉悟
  • 女性地位继续上升。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

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